It's All in your Head

It’s All in your Head is an activity developed by MdBio Foundation in partnership with CNSI to explore the use of wearable concussion sensors in athletics in an effort to prevent long-term injury.

Concussions are a type of traumatic brain injury. The brain tissue is damaged when the brain hits the inside of the skull with a high force, essentially bruising the brain.

If an individual suffers a large number of concussions during their lifetime, long term effects including neurodegeneration, the progressive loss of structure or function of neurons, may occur. As research continues into concussions and the long-term effects of injuries, there may be a way to prevent neurodegeneration in at risk individuals.

In this inquiry based activity, your students will discover the mechanics and symptoms of concussions, test and evaluate current wearable concussion sensors, and walk away with a better understanding of how future technologies can make athletic play safer.                                          .

Learning objectives
  • Students observe how data is collected by a smart wearable sensor
  • Students interpret smart wearable sensor data to assess health
  • Students will use a model to identify and explain the mechanism behind a concussion
  • Students will use concussion simulating goggles to understand the symptoms of concussion and how a potential victim might be identified
  • Students will conduct an investigation to understand and evaluated wearable devices currently on the market based on accuracy, cost, and practicality
Background Information

Explore the basics of concussions—what can cause a concussion, what are the symptoms, and what effect does it have on the brain and its functionality.  Discover technology that can be used to help monitor high level head impacts and how they can be used to keep concussion patients safe when they return to the field.

Internet of Things 

The internet of things (IoT) is a network of internet-enabled devices that can interact with web services and/or each other. Examples of devices in the internet of things include smart watches, fitness trackers, or even an engine sending data to a computer. This growing virtual network includes more and more objects every day and is becoming a part of our daily lives. As these devices become more commonplace, understanding how they communicate is vital to making them more efficient.

IoT devices can include devices such as a smartwatch or fitness tracker, but excludes every day objects that are expected to have an internet function (such as a cell phone or PC).

Video: The Internet of Things

IoT and Health 

Many of these devices help chronic disease patients to monitor different aspects of their health and warn their doctors of adverse effects.  Sensors to track physical activity, glucose levels, and even pacemakers allows clinicians to understand what happens to a patient when they are not in the clinic.

Concussion sensors, and other wearable devices, communicate health information to devices like laptops and tablets that can be used by an athlete’s coach, trainer, or parent.  Collisions or high force events trigger the sensor to send impact information, like magnitude and location of hit, to the associated device.  Many platforms also utilize symptom reporting to track any effects that an athlete experiences after a concussion event.

Identifying Concussions on the Sideline

Trainers use a series of tests to identify when an individual has suffered a concussion. To start, the trainer or ER doctor will conduct an interview to discuss symptoms the athlete is experiencing in addition to see if there are any memory problems present.  Symptoms that are most common include headaches, dizziness, nausea, fatigue, and trouble sleeping.  After an interview, a concussion exam is performed.  This exam checks the patient’s hearing, vision, reflexes, balance and coordination.  A cognitive test is also used to check the patient’s memory and attention span.

Concussion Assessment Tools

Developed by the Concussion in Sport Group and supported by athletic organizations like the International Olympic Committee, Sports Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT) can be used by medical professionals to conduct a standardized evaluation for a presumed concussion.  This tool walks through symptom evaluation, a cognitive screening for memory and concentration, and a neurological screen.  When paired with a pre-assessment performed during preseason, results can be interpreted more easily, but it is not required.

ImPACT (Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing) works similarly to test visual and verbal memory, brain processing speed, and reaction time.  This FDA approved assessment is used by organizations including MLS, Forumula 1 Racing, NASCAR, and US Lacrosse.  The software relies on baseline testing to compare after a concussion event and can be conducted on a computer or a mobile device.

https://bjsm.bmj.com/content/bjsports/early/2017/04/26/bjsports-2017-097506SCAT5.full.pdf

https://impacttest.com/

Concussion Sensors

Wearable concussion sensors are worn during athletic play and communicate potential injuries to trainers or parents on the sideline-alerting them to potential injuries. It’s important to note, that wearable concussion sensors cannot detect concussion events directly. Sensors are able to alert trainers to the potential of events, by measuring the force of impacts to the head an athlete suffers. With the aid of concussion sensors, a diagnosis can be faster and more efficiently providing major benefits to an athlete’s long-term health.

Using wearable sensors to detect concussions is not a new idea, however, the search for the ultimate design continues. Several sensor designs and “smart helmets” have come on the market briefly, before being proven ineffective. Different designs have varying limitations, which has contributed to the lack of widespread usage.

Pre-Laboratory Engagement

Engage students in exploration of existing wearable sensor models

  • What are some common concussion sensor designs?
  • What products have left the market?
  • Where are sensors available for purchase?
Laboratory Activity

Concussions, a type of Traumatic Brain Injury, may be caused by a blow to the head or a violent shaking of the head and body. Concussions are a hot topic in sports that involve regular head impacts, such as football and soccer. Victims may also suffer concussions from car accidents, epileptic seizures, and extreme sports such as skateboarding and cycling. If an individual suffers a large number of concussions during their lifetime, long term effects including neurodegeneration, the progressive loss of structure or function of neurons, may occur. As research continues into the mechanism behind concussions and the long-term effects, there may be a way to prevent neurodegeneration in at risk individuals.

 

One of the main ways to prevent long term injury is to diagnose concussion victims faster and more accurately. Scientists around the globe have implemented the use of wearable sensors as a method of detection during athletic play. When a blow to the head occurs, the sensor alerts medical staff near a victim of the impact. It should be noted, these sensors cannot diagnose a concussion, but they can alert trainers to potential injuries that often go unnoticed in real time.

 

Your high school athletic department is considering purchasing wearable sensors to aid in the detection of sports related concussions. While most school officials believe sensors are needed, there is some hesitation to spend money from individuals who ask if sensors are really needed. Funders have asked you to prepare a presentation that addresses:

  1. What is a concussion and what are some common symptoms?
  2. Evaluate the wearable concussion sensors that your school is considering for accuracy, cost, ease of use, and practicality.
  3. Provide a recommendation to the school around which sensor the school should purchase in an effort to best serve student athletes, keeping in mind the budget is limited and large purchases must be justified
Post-Laboratory Extension

New Research around Concussions

Students will present their conclusions based on the activity, more info coming soon!

Based on the paper:

Apolipoprotein E Associated with Chronic Traumatic Brain Injury in Boxing

New research suggests that there may be a link between the genetic disposition and of recovery time from a significant concussion event.

This post-laboratory extension is intended to provide an open, flexible framework that is not necessarily a continuation of our It’s All in your Head activity but can be tailored to introduce biological concepts illustrate the connection between disciplines.

MORE INFO COMING SOON!

Specifications

  • Skill level: Intermediate
  • Grade level(s):  Grades 9 – 12
  • Focus: Health, Engineering, Biology, Neuroscience
  • Time: 45-60 minutes

NGSS Alignment

HS-ETS1 Engineering Design

HS-LS3 Heredity: Inheritance and Variation of Traits

Key Words

traumatic brain injury, concussion, neurodegeneration, wearable sensor, internet of things (IoT)

Additional Resources

Athlete Intelligence  Learn about the software and CUE and Vector sensors used in the activity.

ROSH Impact Sensing Headgear  Learn about how a headband to measure impacts.

Prevent Biometrics  Learn about the technology behind the Prevent Biometrics head impact monitor system